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Education For All At Triopod Technology

Course Description

SQL forms the cornerstone of all relational database operations. The ability to write the SQL language is essential for those who develop database applications. This course provides a solid foundation of the SQL programming language that enables you to build, query and manipulate databases. You compare the ANSI/ISO standard with the SQL implementations of both Oracle and SQL Server databases.

Course Outline:

SQL Overview

  • Outlining SQL as the cornerstone of database activity
  • Applying the ANSI/ISO standards
  • Describing the fundamental building blocks: tables, columns, primary keys and foreign keys

Building the Database Schema

Creating tables and columns

  • Building tables with CREATE TABLE
  • Modifying table structure with ALTER TABLE
  • Adding columns to an existing table
  • Removing tables with DROP TABLE

Protecting data integrity with constraints

  • Guaranteeing uniqueness with primary key constraints
  • Enforcing integrity with foreign key constraints
  • Imposing business rules with check constraints

Improving performance with indexes

  • Expediting data retrieval with indexes
  • Recommending guidelines for index creation

Manipulating Data

Modifying table contents

  • Adding table rows with INSERT
  • Changing row content with UPDATE
  • Removing rows with DELETE

Applying transactions

  • Controlling transactions with COMMIT and ROLLBACK
  • Deploying BEGIN TRANSACTION in SQL Server

Working with the SELECT Statement

Writing Single Table queries

  • Retrieving data with SELECT
  • Specifying column expressions
  • Sorting the result with ORDER BY
  • Handling NULL values in expressions

Restricting rows with the WHERE filter

  • Testing for equality or inequality
  • Applying wildcard characters
  • Avoiding NULL value pitfalls

Querying Multiple Tables

Applying the ANSI/ISO standard join syntax

  • Matching related rows with INNER JOIN
  • Including nonmatched rows with OUTER JOIN
  • Creating a Cartesian product with CROSS JOIN

Combining results with set operators

  • Stacking results with UNION
  • Identifying matching rows with INTERSECT
  • Utilizing EXCEPT to find nonmatching rows

Employing Functions in Data Retrieval

Processing data with row functions

  • Conditional formatting with the CASE expression
  • Utilizing the CASE expression to simulate IF tests
  • Dealing with NULL values

Performing analysis with aggregate functions

  • Summarizing data using SUM, AVG and COUNT
  • Finding the highest/lowest values with MAX and MIN
  • Defining the summary level with GROUP BY
  • Applying filter conditions with HAVING

Constructing Nested Queries

Applying subqueries in filter conditions

  • Correlated vs. noncorrelated subqueries
  • Testing the existence of rows

Including subqueries in expressions

  • Placing subqueries in the column list
  • Creating complex expressions containing subqueries
  • Handling subqueries that return no rows

Developing In-Line and Stored Views

Breaking down complex problems

  • Selecting data from a query result set
  • Subqueries in the FROM clause

Creating views in a database

  • Building reusable code
  • Updateable vs. non-updateable views

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